The Dynamics of the Everlasting Gospel
By E.H. “Jack” Sequeira

Chapter 4 – The Two Adams

The truth of the two Adams is one of the most neglected and misunderstood doctrines of Scripture. Yet it is one of the most important teachings of the Word pertaining to mankind’s salvation. This is because the eternal destiny of all humanity is wrapped up in these two men, Adam and Christ (the second Adam).

Scripture clearly teaches that “in Adam all die” and “in Christ all will be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:22).  According to the Bible, God created all men in one man (i.e., Adam — Gen. 1:27-28; Gen. 2:7; Acts 17:26).  Satan ruined all men in one man (i.e., Adam — Romans 5:12, 18; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22); and God redeemed all men in one Man (i.e., Christ — 1 Corinthians 1:30; Ephesians 1:3; 2:5-6).

It is this writer’s conviction that we can never fully understand or appreciate all the implications and privileges of our salvation in Christ unless we come to grips and realize our situation “in Adam.” Two passages in the New Testament explain in some detail this vital doctrine of the two Adams, Romans 5:12-21, which many Bible scholars consider the high point of Romans; and 1 Corinthians 15:19-23, 45-49. In order to understand this truth it is important we look carefully at these two passages.

Romans 5:11-21

In Romans 5:11, the apostle Paul states a glorious truth of the gospel — that we Christians can rejoice because we have already received the atonement.  This means the reconciliation Christ has obtained for all men by His death on the cross (Romans 5:10) has already become effective in the life of all believers.  He then goes to expound how we receive this atonement in verses 12-21.  He does it in a unique way, by using Adam as a type or pattern of Christ (note the last part of verse 14).  The reason he does this is because, as already mentioned, we are redeemed “in Christ” in the same way we are lost “in Adam.” The history of these two men, Adam and Christ, has affected the eternal destiny of all humanity. Consequently, to use Adam as a pattern of Christ, Paul first explains our situation “in Adam.” He does this in verses 12-14.

In verse 12, Paul states three facts concerning our sin problem: The first is that sin entered the world (i.e., the history of the human race) through one man (Adam). Second, this sin condemned Adam to death; this is because God made it clear to our first parents, “for when you eat from it you will certainly die” (Gen. 2:16-17).  Third, Paul goes on to state that this death spread to all humanity, or became universal.  The reason for this is “for that all have sinned.”  In view of the fact this last phrase of verse 12 is an incomplete statement, it has brought endless controversies in the history of the Christian church.  What did Paul mean by that phrase? Did he mean that all men die because “all have sinned” like Adam, or was he implying that all men die since “all have sinned” in Adam?

Strong arguments have been presented defending both positions by reputed Bible scholars and both views are held today by sincere Christians.  Since Paul’s purpose in discussing Adam is to use him as a type or a figure or a pattern of Christ (verse 14, last part), our conclusion as to what he meant by that phrase “for that all have sinned” has very important ramifications.  While grammatically both arguments may be correct, nevertheless when we carefully examine the context and logic of this chapter (verses 12-21) and consider the implications of the two views, it becomes clear that to be consistent with the context as well as the logic of this passage, along with the clear teaching of Paul with regards to justification by faith, we would have to take the position that Paul’s idea here is that the death that came to Adam because of his sin spread to all men because “all have sinned” in Adam.

Since God created all humanity out of Adam (Acts 17:26), then it goes without saying that all humanit was in Adam when he sinned, and therefore the whole human race was implicated or participated in that act of disobedience (it must be noted that all of Adam’s children were born after he had sinned).  Hence, the condemnation of death that came to Adam was passed on to all mankind. At least five reasons may be given why this is the correct meaning of that phrase “for that all have sinned.”

  1. It is not historically true that all die because they have sinned like Adam.  A good example are babies; they die, even though they have no personal sins.  The only explanation for their death is that all sinned in Adam.

  2. The verb “sinned” in this phrase of verse 12 is in the aorist tense. In Greek this tense normally refers to a once-and-for-all act that has taken place in the past.  Hence, grammatically “all have sinned” is most probably referring to a past historical event and not the personal sins of people which are many and continuous.  Note the second half of Romans 3:23, which is referring (in the present continuous tense) to our many personal sins, in addition to the first half of verse 23 which states that “all have sinned” (again in the aorist tense) implying, “in Adam.”

  3. According to Romans 5:13-14 (in which Paul explains what he meant by “all have sinned” in vs.12), those who lived from Adam to Moses died, even though they “did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam.”  Hence, the immediate context clearly contradicts the argument that all die because “all have sinned” like Adam.

  4. Four times in Romans 5:15-18 the apostle Paul clearly and explicitly states that Adam’s offense or sin (and not our personal sins) brought to the whole human race judgment, condemnation, and death.  Thus the context of this passage clearly supports the idea that all die because “all have sinned” in Adam.  In addition, verse 19 goes on to state that Adam’s one sin constituted or made us sinners.

  5. Since Paul is using Adam as a type or pattern of Christ in this passage, if we insist that all men die because “all have sinned” like Adam, to make this analogy fit Christ we would have to teach that likewise all men live or stand justified because they have obeyed like Christ.  This would turn justification by faith into legalism or salvation by works; the very opposite of Paul’s clear teaching in Romans.  But the truth is that since “all have sinned” in Adam and, therefore, stand condemned to death in him, likewise Paul’s idea is that all have obeyed “in Christ” and, therefore, stand justified to life in Him (vs.18).

Once we have established this fact, the reasoning of verses 13 and 14 of Romans 5 makes sense.  For here Paul is simply proving the fact he stated in verse 12 that all die because “all have sinned” in Adam.  He does this by looking at a segment of the human race, those who lived from Adam to Moses.  These people, to be sure, were sinning; but since God had not yet explicitly spelled out His law or given it to mankind as a legal code until Moses, He could not justly condemn these people to death for their personal sins.  This is what Paul means in Romans 5:13:  “but sin is not charged against anyone’s account where there is no law.”

It must be pointed out here that according to the New Testament those who died in the flood did so because they rejected salvation and not because they were sinners (1 Peter 3:18-20). Nevertheless, Paul points out in verse 14, these people were dying even though their sins were not identical to Adam’s one transgression. The difference is that while the human race from Adam to Moses were “missing the mark” (meaning, to sin), Adam’s act of disobedience was a “wilful violation of a law” (meaning transgression) and which justly deserved death (Gen. 2:17). In view of this, the only valid reason these people were dying was because all humanity stands condemned to death in Adam.

Some who realize they cannot deny the above facts, yet still believe and teach that all die because “all have sinned” like Adam, try to solve the problem by insisting that in Adam we receive only the first or sleep-death, while our personal sins are responsible for the second death. Such reasoning may sound convincing but will not stand the test of Scripture. The word death in Romans 5:12 appears twice, the first time applying to Adam and the second to his posterity or mankind. The same death that came to Adam, says Paul, passed on to all humanity.

Surely Adam knew nothing about the first death before the fall and therefore, the death sentence pronounced on Adam when he sinned was the second death – goodbye to life forever.  And it is this death that has passed on to all men “in Adam.” In other words, in Adam the whole human race belongs legally on death-row. Besides, the first or sleep-death, which is experienced by both believers and unbelievers, became necessary because of the plan of redemption. Had there been no “lamb slain from the foundation of the world,” Adam would have forfeited his life the day he sinned and mankind would have died eternally (the second death) in him (Gen. 2:17). It is only in Christ that we can pass from death to life (John 5:24; 1 Corinthians 15:55-57; 2 Tim. 1:10; Rev. 20:6).

In dealing with this truth, may I warn the reader that we must not go beyond Scripture and teach that in Adam all humanity also inherits his guilt.  That is the heresy of original sin introduced by Augustine and adopted by the Roman Catholic Church.  Guilt, when used in a legal sense, always includes volition or responsibility and God does not hold us responsible for something in which we had no choice.  It is only when we personally, consciously, persistently, deliberately, and ultimately reject the gift of eternal life in Christ that the guilt and responsibility of sin and the second death become ours (John 3:18, 36; Mark 16:15, 16; Hebrews 2:1-4; 10:14, 26-29).

Having established our situation in Adam in verses 12-14, Paul proceeds in verses 15-18 to show how Adam is a type or pattern of Christ.  Just as what Adam did affected all humanity, likewise what Christ (the second Adam) did also affected all mankind, except in the opposite sense.  For, unlike Adam, Christ obeyed, the very opposite of Adam’s disobedience.  According to Romans 5:15-18, when Adam sinned he brought the judgment of condemnation and death to “all men.”  In the same way when Christ obeyed, He not only redeemed humanity from the results of Adam’s sin but “much more,” He cancelled all our personal sins plus bringing in the verdict of “justification to life” to all men (verses 16, 18; note “many offences” in vs. 16, implying Adam’s plus our personal sins).  This is the unconditional good news of salvation that the gospel proclaims.

Proceeding to verse 19, Paul adds another dimension to the problem of Adam’s sin, that it “made” or constituted all mankind into sinners. This means that in addition to condemnation and the death sentence, we are also born slaves to sin because of the fall, and therefore are incapable of producing genuine righteousness in and of ourselves (Romans 3:9-12; 7:14-25). But in the second half of vs.19, Paul reminds us that because of Christ’s obedience we shall be “made righteous” (note the future tense; this of course applies to all those who receive Him (vs. 17). And to demonstrate that Adam’s sin has made us slaves to sin, God gave His law (vs. 20; Romans 7:7-13). The law, in other words, entered or was given by God not to solve the sin problem but to expose it, for it showed how Adam’s one sin has produced a whole human race of sinners (note the word “offense” in verse 20 is in the singular, and therefore refers to Adam’s one sin). However, the good news is that where sin has multiplied through Adam’s fall, God’s grace in Christ has been multiplied all the more.

This brings us to the next important point concerning this passage under consideration. You will notice that Paul mentions two things with reference to Christ in Romans 5:15-20 which he does not apply to our situation in Adam. First, what God accomplished for all men in Christ is referred to as a “gift” or “free gift.” This means that while all men have been legally justified in Christ’s doing and dying, it is a gift and like any gift only those who by faith receive it will enjoy the benefits of Christ’s obedience. Paul makes this clear in verse 17 by using the word “receive” with reference to the gift of the righteousness of Christ.

Secondly, Paul repeatedly uses the expression “much more” when pointing to the blessings we receive through Christ’s obedience. What he means by this is that in Christ “much more” has been accomplished than simply undoing the damage we inherit in Adam. For example, by His death Christ not only liberated humanity from the condemnation of death that resulted by Adam’s one sin but much more, He redeemed us from our own “many (personal) trespasses and brought justification” (vs. 16).  Again in Christ, not only do we receive eternal life, the opposite of eternal death, but much more we shall “reign (or rule) in life by one, Jesus Christ” (vs.17; 8:17; Rev. 20:6; 22:5).  This is super-abundant grace.

Hence, “where sin increased, grace increased all the more” (v. 20).  Consequently, Paul concludes in verse 21:  As sin ruled our lives from birth and would do so until death, his plea is let grace now take over and reign in the believers life, producing righteousness, until eternity is ushered in.

  1. According to Romans 5:12-19, whether I am reckoned a sinner and condemned to death, or whether I am declared righteous (justified) and qualify for eternal life, has to do with the history of Adam or Christ. On the basis of Adam’s disobedience I am reckoned a sinner, or on the basis of Christ’s obedience I am declared a righteous person.

  2. If we belong to the humanity produced by Adam, we are constituted as sinners and are condemned to eternal death. If, however, we belong to the humanity initiated by Christ, we are declared righteous and qualify for eternal life and heaven. In other words, our eternal destiny rests upon which humanity we choose to belong to.

  3. All men by creation are “in Adam.”  This is the hopeless situation which we inherit and which from birth we find ourselves in.  Hence we are “by nature the children of wrath” (Ephesians 2:3).  But the Good News is that in Christ God has given mankind a new identity and history.  This is His supreme gift to humanity; and therefore, he who believes in Christ and is baptized into Him (Galatians 3:27) shall be saved (Mk.16:16).  In other words, our subjective position in Christ is by faith. What God has done for the whole human race in Christ (deliverance from sin and death, replaced by righteousness and eternal life) is given as a “free gift,” something we do not naturally deserve.  Hence this gift is referred to as grace or unmerited favor.  This gift, to be experienced, has to be received and is made effective by faith alone.

  4. Adam and Christ belong to opposite camps which cannot be reconciled. Adam is equated with sin and death, Christ with righteousness and life.  Consequently it is impossible for anyone subjectively to belong to Adam and Christ at the same time.  To accept Christ by faith means and involves our totally renouncing our position in Adam (2 Corinthians 5:17; 6:14-16).  Baptism is a public declaration that we have died to sin (our position in Adam) and have resurrected with Christ into newness of life (our position in Christ, Romans 6:1-4, 8; 2 Tim. 2:11).  This, incidentally, is of vital importance with reference to our sanctification (2 Corinthians 4:10-11; Philippians 3:9-11).

  5. In view of the above, the human race may be divided into two groups or camps:  the Adamic race made up of many nations and tribes (Acts 17:26), and the believers who are all one in Christ (Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 10:17; Galatians 3:27-28; Ephesians 4:11-13).  Because of the gospel, man is given the choice to belong to either one of these two groups.  We may retain our position in Adam by unbelief and reap the fruits of his sin; or by faith we may become united to Christ and receive the benefits of His righteousness.

The Bible describes these two groups in various ways:

1 Corinthians 15:19-23, 45-49

When we turn to 1 Corinthians 15:19-23, 45-49, we will discover that Paul repeats the same idea he presented in Romans 5:12-21.  Sin entered the human race through one man in the same way that resurrection to life came to all men through one man.  Briefly, this is what these verses in Corinthians say:

Verses 19-20.  Correcting those who denied the resurrection (see vs. 12), Paul points out here that the great hope of the Christian is the resurrection.  Christ Himself, who rose from the dead, is the first-fruits of those who are still resting in their graves “in Christ.”  Paul then goes on to explain that this hope is not built on the basis of our goodness but on our position in Christ.

Verse 21.  For since death came to the whole human race through one man (note, man is singular and refers to Adam, vs. 22). So also through one Man (i.e., Christ ) came the resurrection from the dead.

Verse 22.  Death came upon all men because of our position in Adam. Likewise, the resurrection and the hope of eternal life come to all men who are in Christ (note the expressions, in Adam and in Christ, both of which imply solidarity or corporate oneness).

Verse 23.  Christ the prototype of all those that are in Him has already risen from the dead, being the first-fruits.  But they that are Christ’s (i.e., the believers) will experience this at the second Advent.

Verse 45.  The first Adam being a created being (i.e., having a life that has a begining and therefore can have an end), became the source of our created life.  The last Adam introduced the life-giving Spirit (i.e., eternal life).

Verse 46.  The created life (or natural life) came first. The life-giving Spirit came afterwards.

Verse 47.  The first man (Adam) was made from the dust of the earth, and such was the character he produced (carnal).  The second man (Christ) was from heaven, the Son of God; the character He manifested was of God (spiritual, Romans 1:4).

Verse 48.  As the children of the earthly (Adam) reflect the nature and character of the earthly (i.e., sin); so also those who belong to the heavenly (Christ) will reflect the heavenly character and nature (i.e., righteousness).

Verse 49.  And just as we all, by nature, are a reproduction of the earthly (Adamic) image; so likewise we shall (future tense, the context being the resurrected nature) reflect fully the image of Christ’s resurrected nature at the second advent (verses 50-54; Romans 8:23-25; Philippians 3:20-21).

According to 1 Corinthians 15:21-23, 45-49, there have only been two heads of the human race, Adam and Christ.  There will never be another; hence Christ is referred to as the “last Adam” (vs. 45).  On these two heads rests the destiny of the entire human race.  Adam is the prototype of the unredeemed humanity, while Christ is the prototype of the redeemed humanity.  What is true of Adam is true of his people, and what is true of Christ is true of His people. Adam’s situation after the fall is the situation of all the unredeemed, while that which was realized by Christ for all men will be the situation of all the redeemed “as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (vs. 22).

Christ’s resurrection is the second advent.  Not our righteousness (self-righteousness) but Christ’s righteousness qualifies us for heaven, now and in the judgment.

In verse 45 Adam is called the first Adam, while Christ is referred to as the “last Adam.”  Then again in verse 47 Adam is referred to as the “first man” while Christ is called the “second man.”  These terms in reference to Christ have important implications.  As the last Adam, Christ was the sum total of all that is of the first Adam.  As the second man He is the head of a new or redeemed human race.  Having gathered all that was of the first Adam, Christ as the last Adam superseded the whole Adamic race by His death on the cross (2 Corinthians 5:14; 1 Peter 2:24).

On the cross He died or tasted the second death as substitute or representative of the whole human race (Hebrews 2:9).  In this way He abolished death (2 Tim. 1:10).  In superseding the whole Adamic race at the cross and thus meeting the just demands of the law on our behalf, Christ qualified in the resurrection to be the second man, the head of a new redeemed humanity (2 Corinthians 5:17), who are found altogether in Him. It is this fact alone that the blessed hope is founded upon and we long for His appearing so that we will be fully like Him (Philippians 3:20-21).


According to the clear teaching of the two Adams, our hope rests entirely on Christ our righteousness, for “by the deeds of the law there shall no person be justified before God” (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16).  But they who are justified by faith in Christ shall live (Romans 1:17; Hebrews 2:4; Philippians 3:9).

At creation God made Adam out of the dust of the earth and breathed into him the breath of lives so that Adam became a corporate living person (Gen. 2:7).  This corporate life which Adam received from God was a perfect sinless life which was Spirit-controlled so that it was dominated by selfless love (agape), for he was created in the image of God, and God is agape (Gen. 1:26; John 4:24; 1 John 4:8, 16). Having created Adam and his companion Eve out of him, God commanded Adam to multiply his life and fill this earth with men and women who were all to reflect the character of God (Gen. 1:28). This was originally the divine purpose for this world.

Unfortunately, before Adam and Eve began the multiplication process, they fell into sin and this affected the corporate life of Adam in three ways:

  1. His sinless life became guilty of sin (Gen. 2:17; 3:6-7).

  2. His guilty life came under the condemnation of the law, the penalty of which is death (Ezk.18:4,20).

  3. His perfect sinless life became a sinful life so that instead of being controlled by the Spirit of agape it came under the bondage or slavery of sin (self-love) and the devil (Isa. 53:6; John 8:34; Philippians 2:21; 2 Peter 2:19).

Since the human race is the multiplication of Adam’s life (Acts 17:24-26; blood symbolizes life, Gen. 9:4; Lev. 17:11; Deut. 12:23), therefore all the above three facts concerning Adam’s life passed on to the human race.  Hence, this life we receive at birth is:

  1. A life that has sinned (Romans 5:12).

  2. It is a life that is in bondage or slavery to sin and the devil (John 8:34; Romans 7:14; 1 John 3:8).

  3. It is a life that is forfeited by the law. This means that the law demands this life and when the law’s just demands are met we are left with nothing but eternal death (John 3:36; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Rev. 20:14,15). This is our situation “in Adam,” and we can do nothing ourselves to change or alter these facts.  “In Adam” we have all sinned and are in bondage to sin and must all die.  In other words, we are, without the gospel, hopelessly lost and doomed forever.

It was to deliver us from this situation and to restore God’s original purpose for man that Christ was made flesh. He came as the second head of the Adamic race and introduced the reign of grace through His perfect life, death and resurrection.  Hence, “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead” (1 Peter 1:3). So then, while the fallen human race is the multiplication of Adam’s sinful life, we may say that the church (described in the New Testament as the body of Christ, Romans 12:5; 1 Corinthians 12:13, 14) is the multiplication of Christ’s righteous life (Romans 8:29; Hebrews 2:11; 1 John 3:1,2).  This is the foundation upon which the church is to be built.

Therefore, thanks be to God for His unspeakable gift (2 Corinthians 9:15) which has changed our hopeless situation in Adam and given mankind a new identity and hope in Christ. Through the gospel we receive the very life of Christ (this is realized at conversion or the new birth experience, John 3:3-6).  This life which is received by faith in Christ is:

  1. A life that has perfectly obeyed the law, and kept it in every detail in our corporate humanity which Christ assumed (Matthew 5:17; Romans 10:4).

  2. A life that has condemned and conquered the power of sin in the flesh (John 8:46; Romans 8:2-3).

  3. A life that was submitted by Christ to the full wages of sin on the cross (Romans 5:8,10; Philippians 2:8).

  4. A life that has overcome death and the grave (1 Corinthians 15:55-58; Hebrews 2:14-15).

All these facts become reality to us when we by faith receive this life. This life in the first place justifies us, since it perfectly obeyed the law and met its just demands on behalf of our sins; secondly, this life is able to deliver us fully from the slavery to sin, and produce in us the very righteousness of God, since it has already accomplished this in Christ’s humanity (1 Tim. 3:16). Finally, this life will raise us from the dead and guarantee us eternity for it is eternal life (John 3:36; 6:27; 1 John 2: 25).

These are the privileges that all have who are in Christ. And if we learn to live by His life instead of our natural life, then we are truly abiding in Him (John 15:4-8) and walking in the light (1 John 1:6-7) or in the Spirit (Romans 8:4; Galatians 5:16); and the fruits of such a life will be well pleasing to God.  When we come to the study of the subjective gospel, we will discover that it is the life of Christ abiding in us and dominating us which is the means of our sanctification, “Christ in you the hope of glory” (Colossians 1:27).  In Christ we possess a life that is greater than the power of sin and the devil (1 John 4:4).  And when this new life takes over, sin will be mortified in our bodies and instead, Christ will be revealed (Romans 8:9-14).  Thus the earth will be lightened with the glory of God through His people (Rev. 18:1).  This will be God’s final display before Christ comes (Rev. 10:7; see also Christ’s Object Lessons, page 69).

Having made an in-depth exposition of these two passages on the two Adams, let us, for clarity’s sake, summarize the conclusions.

The Two Adams Summarized

  1. Adam’s sin brought all mankind under the death sentence – both the first and second death. The first death being a necessity because of the gospel program and the second death being the actual wages of sin.

  2. Christ’s obedience did two things for all mankind:  (i) it saved all humanity from the second death, the wages of sin, and (ii) it brought the verdict of justification to life on all men.  Note: Since believers die the first death, the gospel obviously only redeems us from the second death (Rev. 20:6).  On the cross Christ tasted and abolished only the second death, the curse of the law (Hebrews 2:9; 2 Tim. 1:10; Galatians 3:13).

  3. The whole force of the parallel in Romans 5:12-21 between Adam and Christ depends on the idea of the solidarity of mankind in Adam and in Christ. In the great majority of the 510 times the word “Adam” is used in the Old Testament, it possesses a collective significance. In the same sense, Christ is referred to as the last or second Adam in the New Testament.

  4. Salvation from the second death and the verdict of justification to life is God’s supreme gift in Christ to all humanity (John 3:16).  This constitutes the Good News of the gospel.  But like any gift it has to be received in order to be enjoyed (Romans 5:17). Those who knowingly, willfully, and persistently reject God’s gift of salvation in Christ (the gospel) are deliberately choosing the second death instead of eternal life. Therefore in the judgment God bestows on them what they have deliberately and persistently chosen, and they can only blame themselves (and they will do so) when they face the second death (John 3:18, 36; Mk. 16:15,16; Romans 14:11).

  5. Every baby is born subjectively under the reign of sin, condemnation, and death because of the fall of Adam (Romans 3:9-20). To continue to live under this reign of sin and death and resisting the grace of Christ will culminate in the second death. But objectively Christ, by His doing and dying, has delivered all humanity from this reign and placed mankind under the “reign” of grace, righteousness, and eternal life. To accept this gift of grace by faith is to say goodbye to the reign of sin and death and to live under the reign of grace and righteousness which ends up with eternal life (Romans 5:21; 6:14, 22, 23).

  6. You cannot choose to remain in Adam and at the same time accept by faith to be in Christ. To receive Christ, the author of righteousness, means to say goodbye to Adam, the author of sin (Romans 6:15-18).

  7. Your eternal destiny depends on which humanity you have chosen. Unbelief means deliberately choosing to remain in Adam and the reign of sin and death. Belief means willfully choosing to be in Christ and the reign of righteousness and eternal life. It is for this reason God will not bring the sad history of this wicked world to an end until this gospel has been preached “in the whole world as a testimony to all nations” (Matthew 24:14).

Based on the deliberate choice we make concerning the two Adams, each one of us will be judged on judgment day.  “This day I call the heavens and the earth as witnesses against you that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses.  Now choose life, so that you and your children may live” (Deut. 30:19).

In concluding this most important study, it must be emphasized that not only is this truth on the two Adams of utmost importance to our understanding of the objective gospel and justification by faith, but it is also of great practical value to our Christian experience since the fruits of this doctrine are unto holiness of living or sanctification. It is for this reason Christ declared: “Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free,” and “if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed” (John 8:32, 36).

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